Pruning chokeberry in the fall - rules of conduct
For the correct formation of a young plant or for the purpose of cultivating an adult bush, timely and correct pruning of chokeberry is necessary. Simple care rules will help not only maintain the decorative effect of the shrub, but also get a generous harvest of healthy and tasty berries.
Why chokeberry pruning
Aronia, or, as it is sometimes called. chokeberry is a shrub, so you shouldn't be surprised by the large amount of growth every year. New shoots, expanding, fill a significant area, increasing the base of the bush. To avoid shading, adult branches tend upward, sometimes reaching a height of more than 3 meters. At the same time, the growing shoots develop further, thereby causing the crown to thicken. If you do not interfere with this process, then after two or three years the fruiting of such a bush is noticeably reduced and, at best, only external branches that will receive a sufficient amount of sunlight will bloom and bear fruit. But ripe berries will also be small and not juicy, because the nutrients are consumed by the huge green mass of the plant.
Similar problems with the yield of chokeberry are typical for old, as well as for neglected, "feral" shrubs. Only timely and regular care will help keep the plant healthy. It should be remembered that the most fruitful branches are those aged from 5 to 8 years, therefore, plant rejuvenation is often carried out simultaneously with pruning.
Video clip about planting and leaving
Why do you have to cut rowan in the fall
Professional gardeners recommend pruning most shrubs in early spring, before sap begins to flow in the plants. Usually this period falls on March or early April, that is, what is also called the snow. But just not everyone has the opportunity to visit their garden at this time. On the other hand, at the beginning of spring, and without this, there is enough trouble and often postponing pruning, the right moment is missed. In this case, you do not need to grab the pruner and complete the work in the fall, otherwise the loss of moisture through the open wounds of the cut branches can be detrimental to the plant.
Removal of chokeberry shoots, which appears at the base of the bush, is carried out throughout the season, and it is completely painless for the plant.
Shrub formation and supportive sanitary pruning
In the process of forming a shrub, carefully monitor its crown.
After planting a young chokeberry seedling, transplanted or grown from a seed, the growth of the current year does not need to be shortened. In the first year, all the forces of the plant are directed to the adaptation and development of the root system.
In subsequent years, when young shoots of black chokeberry are already beginning to appear, it is necessary to begin the formation of a bush. It is carried out according to the following scheme:
- Three or four of the strongest and most promising branches are left from the shoots, cutting off all other shoots at the soil level, as well as those that will grow in summer.
- The next four years repeat the procedure, leaving 3-5 young shoots and cutting out all the extra ones. Thus, in the sixth year, the base of the chokeberry bush will be about 10-12 branches of different ages.
- Then only sanitary cutting is carried out - weak, broken or frost-damaged branches are removed. Root shoots are cut out and crown thickening is controlled.
- Around the seventh to eighth year, they begin to carry out a gradual rejuvenation of chokeberry. Branches older than seven years of age are cut off at the very base, leaving no hemp, which can become a breeding ground for infections and pests.
- To replace the removed branches, in the spring they leave such an amount of strong, healthy shoots, which after a few years will become the basis of the crown.
- In the following years, the procedure for replacing branches is repeated, thus achieving constant rejuvenation of the chokeberry, without loss in yield.
In the process of forming a shrub, carefully monitor its crown. Excessive branching inevitably leads to thickening of the chokeberry, and a lack of sunlight is the main reason for the drop in yield. Remove all unnecessary and growing shoots inside the crown, because they will not be useful anyway, and nutrients will be wasted.
The plot is about how to transplant and propagate mountain ash
Rejuvenation of the old bush
Taking advantage of the unpretentiousness of the chokeberry, gardeners often do not pay attention to it. And, if the basal shoots are removed from time to time, then attention is paid to the age of the branches only when the quantity and quality of the crop is noticeably reduced. In such cases, the plant needs radical pruning. It helps to direct all forces to the formation of a young shrub and not to spend them on maintaining old branches.
During this rejuvenation, the plant is cut completely at the soil level. Next spring, young shoots will begin to grow from the root, from which the formation of a new, young plant will begin. The strong root system of the chokeberry will allow in three years to completely revive the bush and again receive vitamin yields.
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Many gardeners who do not have the practice of growing mountain ash have doubts about the need to prune a tree, because there are many clear examples that mountain ash can grow and bear fruit without anyone's participation. It should be noted that mountain ash is also a fruit tree and it needs pruning to increase the yield of berries. And if mountain ash is grown exclusively for decorative purposes, then a beautifully formed tree will only decorate the garden plot.
In addition, timely and correct pruning of mountain ash is the prevention of diseases that have such consequences as a decrease in yield and decorativeness of the tree.
Chokeberry grows rapidly and begins to bear fruit from the age of 3. From mid-August to September, its fruits ripen.
Chokeberry is used for planting hedges, ravines are strengthened with it, it can be planted in ordinary plantings, but single specimens in gardens look good too.
Chokeberry is undemanding to soils, will grow on dry sandy, even tolerate acidic ones. It will grow well on soils of normal acidity, it also likes moist loamy soils, but not heavy so that there are more flower buds of green shoots. It requires good lighting, otherwise it will bloom poorly and there will be few fruits.
Like most fruit and berry plants, it is best to plant it in the fall. But if you plant it in early spring before bud break, it will also take root normally. Aronia Michurin can be transplanted even with blossoming leaves, unlike most plants. The root system of black chokeberry is located at a distance of 50 cm from the soil surface, so the close location of groundwater will not be a problem.
Chokeberry in the nursery. Photo from the site sirenevyj-sad.ru
Aronia is planted like many other fruit and berry crops. Dig a hole with a depth and diameter of about 50 cm. The fertile soil layer - in one direction, the lower layers of the earth - in the other. Add a bucket of humus, potassium sulfide (about 60 g) and superphosphate (about 100 g) to the "top ground". The planting hole is filled with this mixture after the seedling is lowered there. When planting, the root collar needs to be buried by about 1.5 cm.
After planting, you need to water the seedling, for this you need about a bucket of water. Mulch with humus, sawdust, dry soil. Once the seedling is planted, trim it back to 4 healthy buds (about 20 cm from the soil surface) to get a strong growth.
Reproduction of chokeberry
Chokeberry is a self-pollinated culture. The easiest way to propagate it is by root suckers. The root offspring of chokeberry can grow up to 40 cm over the summer and have a good viable root system, so you can safely transplant them. But this does not exclude the possibility of propagating it by seeds, cuttings, dividing the bush, layering, grafting.
Chokeberry seedlings in the nursery. Photo from the site ulpitomnik.ru
When propagated by seeds, they need to be sown in October, during the winter period they will go through a stage of natural stratification, and a seedling will appear in the spring. The depth of sowing seeds into the ground is about 2 cm. Spring sowing requires stratification of seeds for about 4 months at a temperature not higher than + 5 ° C.
For inoculation, they usually take a stock of mountain ash, but a pear or hawthorn is also suitable.
Our market will help you choose chokeberry seedlings for planting on your site. Browse a selection of chokeberry varieties and compare offers from different online stores.
Genre: Garden and Vegetable Garden, Home and Family
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Formation of a chokeberry bush
Chokeberry (chokeberry) is a fruiting deciduous strongly branching shrub up to 3 m high from the Rosaceae family. Chokeberry cultivars grown in Russia are about 2–4 m tall.
The crown of a young bush is compact and compressed, with age it becomes more spreading, reaching 1.5–2 m in diameter. Spreading crown of old bushes up to 3-4 m in diameter, in such a bush there are up to 50 different-aged trunks. Chokeberry can grow in one place for more than 30 years.
Young twigs are cherry-red in color, annual shoots are red-brown or dark green, over time, the old trunks of chokeberry become grayish-black. Individual plant trunks live up to 15 years. Chokeberry is one of the fastest growing crops, the plants begin to bear fruit in 1-2 years after planting. Rowan blackberry blooms in May - June, inflorescences are located at the ends of the branches.
In a small garden, it is enough to have one bush or a grafted chokeberry tree, provided with a feeding area of 4 × 2 m.An chokeberry can be planted in autumn (about mid-September) or spring (around the end of April) with 2-year-old seedlings, keeping a distance between the bushes 2 –2.5 m so that they do not shade each other. Chokeberry is a very light-loving culture.
Large cuts when rejuvenating old tall shrubs are best treated with garden putties to prevent stem rot. They are superior in quality to traditional garden varieties.
Chokeberry can be planted with seedlings and seedlings. Good seedlings have highly developed roots and therefore tolerate transplanting well without shortening the aerial part after planting. When planting, you should take into account the biological feature of chokeberry to give a lot of growth, so you do not need to plant the plants deeper than they grew in the nursery. Saplings differ from seedlings of the same age by a slightly smaller growth rate of the aerial part, root system and relatively weak branching. Therefore, it is recommended to prune the seedlings immediately after planting, leaving stumps 15–20 cm high with 5–6 buds in order to quickly get a strong bush.
Agrotechnology of chokeberry in its main part is similar to that of other berry crops, it necessarily includes pruning and shaping of bushes.
This mountain ash has a great ability to produce shoots. A young chokeberry seedling has only one stem, which in the 3-4th year begins to give new shoots from the root collar every year - root suckers. The next year, these annual shoots give their roots and begin to feed on their own. Therefore, you can plant the plant with root suckers that have their own root system.
Over the next years, the planted plants continue to grow and form. An outward sign of their satisfactory condition is the annual growth of branches by at least 20 cm.
Chokeberry bushes are very fond of light, but have the characteristic property of over-thickening, which deprives the center of the crown of the bush of a normal level of illumination and access to sunlight. Therefore, starting from the 2nd year, the bushes need formative pruning. Basal shoots should be strictly normalized in young bushes, cutting out weak and thin shoots every year to the very base, without leaving a hemp.
When forming a bush, a maximum of 10-12 strong skeletal shoots are left. Further, no more than 5–6 strong, conveniently located annual shoots are left annually. In the course of such formation, rowan bushes by the age of 9–10 years will consist of 50–70 trunks of different ages. The most productive branches are between 4 and 7 years old.
It is recommended to thin out the crown of a fruiting bush, starting from the 7-8th year of fruiting, annually cutting up to a third of old shoots (over 7 years old) at the soil level. You also need to cut diseased, weak, broken, dry and bare branches on the bushes. But you should not shorten strong annual shoots, since fruit buds are laid at their ends, their removal will lead to a strong decrease in yield.
Aronia branches retain high productivity up to 13 years. To extend the life of the plantations and long-term preservation of high yields, once every 4–5 years, starting from 10–11 years of age, rejuvenating pruning is carried out at half the height of the bushes. Old, fruiting branches are pruned at soil level, they bring too small berries. Leave no more than 20-25 strong shoots of different ages, this pruning stimulates the growth of shoots. As a result, there is an abundant growth of shoots, of the young basal shoots, only 10–12 of the most developed branches are left. After such a rejuvenating pruning, you need to start anew shaping the bush, thin it out, leaving the strongest young shoots.
When growing on the site of chokeberry, it is necessary to pay attention to the timely removal of shoots, which forms very quickly. If you do not regularly engage in plant formation, then the chokeberry bush quickly overgrows and simply spreads to the sides, which leads to a significant decrease in yield. Unnecessary root shoots are sometimes dug up and cut off at a depth from the mother's roots. In especially advanced cases, pruning is carried out on a stump at a height of 10–20 cm from the ground. You can cut shrubs on a stump in late autumn or early spring, before the juices begin to move, as soon as the opportunity arose to approach the plant.
Old plants are somewhat weakened, they do not respond to the operation with a violent growth of overgrowth. In order not to lose them at all, it is better to break this procedure into stages, dividing the total number of shoots in the bush into 3 parts. In the 1st year, the first third is cut, choosing the oldest branches and cutting them as evenly as possible. The next year, the second third of the branches are removed, and in the third year, the entire remainder of the old branches is removed. By this time, 2-year-old shoots have already grown and branched from the hemp of the year before last, and new annual shoots will grow from the hemp of the last year. As a result, the plant will remain in place, but will be completely renewed (Fig. 60).
Of particular interest in terms of facilitating the work on the formation of the bush is the grafting of the chokeberry cuttings on the mountain ash, which avoids the abundant appearance of shoots. Inoculation is usually carried out at a height of about 1 m from the surface of the earth or below. Next, you can form the resulting plant in the form of a ball on a trunk of various heights.Small-sized grafted trees on a trunk are easier to care for and take up less space, they require an area for nutrition of 2.5 × 2 m.
Fig. 60. Secondary pruning of bush branches to a stump
FORMATION OF A GRAPE BUSH
The vineyard can be laid with various planting material (vegetative seedlings, cuttings, cuttings or seedlings and schools). However, even despite the fact that an equivalent planting material is being laid, shoots on young plantings in the first year of the growing season develop differently.
The task of the grower at this time is to grow strong shoots, which by autumn will be at least 5–7 mm thick in the middle part. In the fall, before the onset of frost, the shoots of the first-year bush are covered without pruning, so they winter better. Young, non-fruiting bushes are pruned in the spring, despite the spring "crying" of the vines. Pruning of fruiting bushes is carried out in the fall.
The first pruning of young bushes is carried out in the spring, after opening. Before you start the first pruning of the bush, you need to choose the type of formation. There are many types of vines shaping. Formation allows you to give the bush one form or another, different not only in the structure of the aboveground part, but also in the distribution of the annual growth on the trunk. They begin to form a bush from the first year of planting, in the future, the formation continues up to 5-6 years, depending on the characteristics of the form. The formation of the bush ends with the creation of all the elements of the skeleton and fruit wood. Allocate standard and standard formations.
4-arm fan shaped
A common shaping is four-armed. If 2 shoots appear on a young grape bush, then each of them must be cut into 2 eyes, of which 4 shoots will then develop. These are the future sleeves (Fig. 61).
Fig. 61. Stamp-free formation, 1-2 years (spring, autumn)
If one shoot has developed on the bush, then cut it into 4 eyes, of which 4 shoots will then develop.
Then, in the 3rd year, when pruning, 2 eyes are left on each of the 4 shoots, the rest are cut off (Fig. 62).
Fig. 62. Stamp-free forming, 3rd year (spring)
At the end of the third year, in the fall, fruit links are formed from the shoots, after which the grape bushes are cut according to all the rules.
Depending on the development of the bush, in subsequent years the number of fruit links is increased.
The four-arm shaping is convenient for a two-plane trellis.
In order to restrain the growth of the sleeve, the replacement knot is left only on the lower shoot. The lower shoot is located closer to the head of the bush and cut it off by 3 cm. The fruit arrow is cut according to the characteristics of the variety.
Correct pruning of the bush annually allows you to regulate its growth, as well as maintain the hatched formation, thereby making it possible to regulate the load and replace older parts with younger ones.
In addition, favorable conditions are created for pollination and ventilation of the bushes.
If the grapes are not pruned, then many extra shoots and inflorescences will develop on it. This will lead to a lack of nutrition for the bush and the appearance of small and loose bunches and berries, and poor ventilation will contribute to infection with fungal diseases.
Pruning is carried out in spring or autumn.
The advantages of autumn pruning are that the places of the cuts are corked during the winter, this contributes to the fact that in the spring the grapes do not "cry".
In addition, pruning in the fall makes it easier to cover the bushes for the winter. It is easier to tie the trimmed bush into a bunch before sheltering.
Autumn pruning is carried out before the onset of frost.
During pruning, weak shoots and fertile vines are removed. Sleeves rejuvenate if needed.
The grapes "cry" because the roots are actively pumping water up the stem. "Weeping" happens in the spring, before the leaves appear.
Different grape varieties have different pruning lengths for fruit vines. It can be short - 4–6 ocelli and long - 15–20 ocelli. The most common is considered to be medium pruning - 8-10 eyes. With this pruning, fruit vines can be positioned obliquely upward, horizontally or arcuate.
If the load on the bush is normal, then medium pruning allows for a high yield of good quality.
Medium pruning is used in the cultivation of many varieties of grapes, fruit vines are pruned with 6-8 eyes.
When pruning in autumn, it must be borne in mind that if the culture is covering, then some of the buds will get wet or vytryut. To prevent this from happening, during pruning, a 30-40% supply of eyes is left on the fruit vine, cut off longer.
Excess shoots are removed during green operations.
The fruitfulness of the eyes along the length of the vine depends on what the spring and summer of the past year were like.
If the weather is cool, then the setting of flower eyes is delayed and the eyes located closer to the sleeve of the bush will bear fruit best of all.
If eyes did not appear on the replacement knot, then during the next pruning, shoots that have grown on the fruit arrow and are closer to the sleeve of the bush are used.
In spring, as a rule, winter-hardy, non-covering varieties are pruned, since whole bushes tolerate winter better.
Pruning is done after the buds have blossomed, that is, when the grapes "cry" less and a living bud is visible.
During the spring "cry" the pressure of the grapes is about two atmospheres, as a result of which the sap begins to flow from the wounds on the stems.
There is a misconception that the "cry" of grapes does not affect the development of the plant in any way and it determines the presence of moisture at the location of the roots. Thus, if the grapes "cry", then they need watering. However, the experiments have shown that the spring "cry" is harmful, as during pruning the bush loses a lot of moisture and nutrients.
Escaping, the sap falls on the eyes and burns them, as a result of which they die. Because of this, up to 25% of the crop is lost from one bush. If you cut the bushes in the fall, then there will be no spring "cry" next year. In order to avoid getting the sap on the eyes, the vines are placed horizontally or obliquely with the cut down, then the sap will flow to the ground.
Disadvantages of standard fan forming
Despite the fact that the fan-less shaping is quite simple, it has a number of disadvantages.
One of them is the cost of manual labor for work related to the preparation and shelter of bushes for the winter.
The fanless shankless formation is used for partial cover by high hilling.
This type of formation is a bushless bush with 4-6 short sleeves, which are located in the plane of the trellis.
The perennial parts of the bushes and the lower eyes of the annual shoots can be protected from the cold by placing the sleeves in close proximity to the soil and spilling them.
The vines are cut short - fruit arrows for 4-5 eyes, replacement knots - for 2-3 eyes. The vines are cut after hilling over the covering shaft, and in the spring they are cut off completely. Old sleeves are replaced by shoots that have appeared on recovery knots or from dormant buds.
The ground fan is suitable for varieties with a high yield of the lower eyes.
One-sided shaping of the bush allows mechanizing the laying and covering of bushes.
The vineyard is divided into tractor enclosures with alternating groups of rows. Scheme: 10, 10, 10, ... 12, 12, 12.
Now there are several modifications of one-sided inclined formations for the covering culture of grapes, which makes it possible to mechanize both the shelter and the opening of bushes, as well as harvesting.
Formation according to the "Magarach - Ilcher" system
The formation of bushes according to this system is currently in line with modern technology requirements.
The bush formed according to this scheme is a long-sleeved oblique formation with a new placement of the crown in space.
The trellis is equipped as follows. 1-2 wire leashes are installed near each bush. The lower end of the leash is attached to the trellis post, the upper end is tied to the first tier of wire stretched at a height of 160 cm.
The first tier can consist of two parallel wires or one wire with a diameter of 4–5 mm. The leashes are placed obliquely: one at an angle of 60–70 °, the second at 45–50 °.
The second tier of wire is pulled at a height of 175 cm. It can also be pulled on the 5th year of the life of the bushes.
The bush has 2 arms, on which perennial branches are located, and a twig, on which 1-2 shoots are grown for replacement.
In the 2nd year, they begin to create the formation.
When pruning in spring, 1-2 shoots with 2-3 eyes are left on the bush. The 3 shoots that remained after the debris are tied to leashes as they grow.
The sleeves are formed in the 3rd year. They take the 2 most developed shoots and cut them to a length of 1.5–2 m, then tie them to leashes every 30–35 cm.
The 3rd shoot is cut into 2 eyes. The fragments left on it after the 1st or 2nd shoot are tied to a leash.
All green shoots on the sleeves in an area of 60 cm above the soil level break off. The first branch is created at least 60 cm.
Usually, 3 branches with fruit elements are formed on the sleeves.
In the 4th year, shoots in the upper zone are cut into 10–12 eyes, in the lower - by 2–3 eyes, in the middle - by 4–6 eyes.
On the recovery knot, one shoot (lower) is cut shortly, and a new sleeve is formed from the second.
The formation of the bush is completed in the 5th year.
Every year in the fall, the bushes, along with the leashes, are completely separated from the trellis and covered. In the spring they are lifted by leashes and tied to a wire (Fig. 63).
Fig. 63. Formation of bushes according to the "Magarach - Ilcher" system: a - 2nd year (spring, autumn) b - 3rd year (spring, autumn) c - 4th year (spring and autumn) d - subsequent years ( spring, autumn) d - bush, covered for the winter e - bush in spring, tied to trellis wires
This type of formation is used when growing winter-hardy, non-covering varieties. During the first pruning of a young bush, only one highly developed shoot is left and shortened by 2-3 eyes.
A stem is formed from this shoot, the 2nd shoot is a reserve one. Excess shoots break off.
As the main shoot grows, all stepchildren are removed, and the shoot itself is tied to a stake.
To make the shoot mature better, pinch the growth point. This is done at the end of August.
In the 3rd year, the main shoot-stem is cut to the required length, and the reserve one is cut to the replacement knot.
The developed shoots on the trunk break off, leaving only 2 upper ones. They are tied to a wire, forming the shoulders of the cordon.
In the 4th year, the sleeves are cut, according to the characteristics of the variety, and the eyes are laid. Excess shoots are removed, leaving along the length of the cordon at a certain distance from each other (Fig. 64).
Fig. 64. Stamping (4th year, spring)
In the 5th year, when pruning, the shoots are shortened by 2-3 eyes.
In the 6th year, they begin to form fruit links due to shoots that have developed on the eyes.
Katarovka is a two-three-fold removal of surface roots that have developed in the upper part of the underground trunk.
Accelerated shaping allows you to get the grape harvest 1 year earlier.
Accelerated formation begins in the year of planting a seedling or cutting.
As soon as 6–7 nodes appear on a young shoot in the school, their tops are pinched over the 4–5th leaf. This promotes the formation of stepchildren.
In winter, young bushes leave with 4 shoots.
When the seedling is planted in a permanent place, 4 sleeves are immediately formed.
Cuttings for planting in a school are selected of high quality, when planting, the distance between the cuttings is increased.
The formation of a seedling in a school gives good results, provided that the agricultural technology is excellent.
Each school watering is accompanied by the introduction of organic and mineral fertilizers, while their rate is doubled.
The load of a bush is a biological property of a variety, its quality.
• load with eyes (the number of eyes that were left on the bush after the final pruning)
• load of shoots (the number of shoots that were left on the bush after their fragments).
Data on the load of a particular variety can be obtained from the ampelographic characteristics of the varieties.
These data change depending on the following conditions: weather and level of agricultural technology, soil composition, place of growth.
When characterizing varieties, these conditions are taken into account, which is why this information should be taken as a basis. Thus, experienced growers regularly record weather conditions, the development of a grape bush and pruning in a special journal.
Also, when pruning a bush, they are guided by the data of long-term observations and analyze them.
This type of shaping is used in the southern regions, where grapes are not covered for the winter.
High-stem formation most of all meets the biological needs of plants.
With this formation, the yield increases by 30–40% compared to ground-level crops.
This can be achieved by laying fruit buds closer to the base of the shoots and increasing the mass of bunches.
If the green shoots of the first or second year during the growing season grow very strongly, then you can apply the method of accelerated formation of bushes, based on the use of stepchildren.
Free placement of shoots allows you to improve lighting and ventilation conditions, in addition, it allows you to reduce the susceptibility of grapes to mildew and gray rot, internodes and the shoot itself become shorter, the care of the bushes becomes easier, and there is no need to carry out some operations at all.
The accumulation of perennial wood contributes to a stable harvest, increases the winter hardiness of plants.
The disadvantage of this type of formation is the delay in the ripening of the crop, especially if there is not enough heat.
Despite all the positive qualities of high-stamping, the possibility of its use is limited by low temperatures.
However, the development of new cold-resistant varieties makes it possible to form bushes according to this pattern where the temperature in winter does not drop below -28 ° C.
The main condition for breeding a high-stemmed form is a strong and medium growth of grape bushes.
Highly developed seedlings are planted in a previously prepared fertilized soil with abundant watering (Fig. 65). The 3 best eyes are left on the seedling.
In the 1st year, all conditions are created for the root system and 2 strong shoots to develop well.
Next to the bush, a stab stake is placed about 1.5 m high.
Tying shoots to the stake is carried out about 3-4 times during the entire growing season.
On a strong shoot, intended for the formation of a trunk, stepchildren are removed as they appear.
The 2nd shoot is a reserve one, in addition, it contributes to the growth of root mass.
If the main shoot develops well, then the top of the spare is pinched.
Fig. 65. Removing a high-standard cordon: 1 - 1st year 2 - 2nd year 3 - 3rd year 4 - 4th year 5 - 5th year
By the end of the first year, a trellis with two tiers of wires is installed.
The first tier is at a height of 100–120 cm, cordons are tied to it, the second tier consists of two parallel wires - every 30 cm for planting green shoots.
The next year, in the spring, the main shoot is cut to the height of the trunk, the spare shoot is removed in the same way as the stepsons.
As the eyes grow on the stem, the 2 upper ones are left, the rest break off.
As soon as the left shoots grow up, they are horizontally attached to the first tier of the trellis, and the ends are pinched. This contributes to the good development of stepchildren, which are later used to form horns.
The first one is left at a distance of 10 cm from the trunk, the subsequent ones - after 20 cm.
If the bushes grew actively and the stepchildren developed normally, then next year in the spring they form horns, which are the basis of the fruit links.
If the stepsons develop poorly, then the horns are formed from the main shoots on the horizontal part of the sleeves.
In order for the fruit links to form as quickly as possible, pinch the shoots above the 3rd node.
From the stepchildren that will develop next spring, they form a fruit arrow and a replacement knot.
Within 2 years, which is the formation of horns and fruit links, the developing shoots are tied to the second tier of the trellis.
If this is not done, then under the influence of the mass of bunches, the upper side of the arms of the cordon will be below, and the shoots will begin to hang to the ground, which will not allow the formation of fruit links.
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Biologically, blackberries are similar to raspberries, i.e. bears fruit on the branches of the second year of life.
Blackberry pruning is carried out after fruiting, in the fall. In the spring, damaged, frozen two-year shoots are removed, during the summer, one-year shoots are formed.
Blackberries are a powerful and durable shrub, they must be grown on a support. The difficulty lies in the fact that most varieties need to be covered for the winter. Pruning and shaping young annual shoots of blackberries is aimed at creating a bush that can be conveniently placed on a support, and then removed from it for the winter. Two-year-old shoots after fruiting are cut at ground level.
Pruning shrubs on a trunk
Recently, berry bushes grown in the standard culture have become popular. Such "trees" can be self-rooted and grafted. The first can be obtained with the help of competent formative pruning. Currants and gooseberries, grafted onto a golden currant stem, can root growth, which must be cut right off the ground.
Red currants bear fruit on old branches, so they need minimal pruning. Black bears fruit well on younger branches, on shoots older than three years, the berries are becoming less and less. Five-year-old branches require rejuvenation and are prime candidates for removal.
Left: standard gooseberry. Photo in the middle: fruits of red currant. Right: red currants on a trunk
The fashion for standard forms of fruit and ornamental shrubs came to Russia from Europe and immediately won the hearts of many gardeners. And for good reason! Currants and gooseberries on a stem have a number of advantages:
- they take up little space
- berries almost do not spoil, as they do not touch the ground. It is very convenient to collect them
- such plants are less sick and are not damaged by pests, since the branches are located high above the ground. This reduces the number of chemical treatments.
The plant nursery of POISK Agroholding offers a wide range of seedlings of standard bushes - gooseberries, red, black and golden currants. You can see the full range of planting material on the official website.
Aronia varieties Nero and Black-eyed
The Nero variety is grown both for obtaining berries and as a decoration for a garden plot. The shape of the crown resembles a vase, the shoots begin to branch out at the base of the bush, the bush itself, up to 2 meters high, looks quite compact.
The flowering of chokeberry varieties Nero takes place in the spring, earlier than other varieties, the flowers are white with characteristic red stamens. The dark green leaves of the chokeberry Nero turn yellow by autumn. The variety is characterized by large berries with a high content of vitamin C and antioxidants. The variety is frost-resistant, tolerates partial shade well, is grown for the purpose of obtaining berries and as a landscape planting.
Black-eyed variety differs from others in reduced berry astringency. Aronia Black-eyed sun-loving, unpretentious, highly resistant to pests and diseases, frost-resistant. The variety blooms in May-June and is a honey plant. The berries ripen in September, have a rounded shape, reach 1 cm in diameter. It is recommended to plant seedlings of the Black-eyed variety in autumn.