Gesneria (Gesneria) refers to an evergreen plant from the Gesneriaceae family. It is a perennial that grows naturally in the tropical humid forests of America and the Antilles. The plant got its name from the name of the Swiss scientist Kondar Gesner.
Gesneria can grow as a small shrub about 60 cm high or as a herbaceous plant. The leaves are oval in shape, with a large supply of moisture, the stem is erect. The rhizome is presented in the form of tubers. The flowers are tubular, the petals are bent outward, the color is yellow or red with yellow.
Gesneria care at home
Location and lighting
Gesneria leaves are soft velvety to the touch due to the presence of hairs on them. It is important to protect the flower from direct sunlight so that it does not get fatal sunburn. Ideally, it will be located on the east or west windows with bright diffused sunlight. If the gesneria is on the south window, then the sunlight needs to be shaded. In winter, artificial light bulbs can be used to extend daylight hours.
In spring and summer, the gesneria should be at a temperature of about 20-25 degrees, and in winter during the rest period - at least 18 degrees.
Since gesneria grows in the natural environment in hot and humid tropical forests, at home the plant needs high humidity. The only exception is that moisture should not get on the pubescent leaves. The air around the plant is regularly sprayed, and the pot itself is placed on a pallet with moistened sand. You can also use moss for this, which also perfectly retains moisture. The main condition is that the bottom of the container with the plant should not come into contact with water, since the root system can quickly rot.
In spring and summer, Gesneria is in the stage of active growth, so watering at this time should be abundant. Water the plant as the top layer of soil dries out in the pot. It is important that the water in the container does not stagnate, as the tubers of the plant may begin to rot. With the onset of a dormant period, in autumn and winter, as well as after the cessation of flowering, Gesneria is watered less and less. It is best to use the bottom watering method, as the plant does not tolerate moisture on the leaves. For irrigation, use soft distilled water at room temperature.
Gesneria tubers are planted in a pot with a mixture of humus, sand, peat and leafy soil in equal proportions. The bottom of the pot must be lined with a good drainage layer of pebbles or expanded clay.
Top dressing and fertilizers
In the period from early March to early October, the gesneria needs regular feeding. The frequency of top dressing is 2 times a month. For fertilization, liquid complex dressings are used for flowering indoor plants.
It is necessary to transplant an adult overgrown plant in January-February. The tuber does not need to be completely covered with earth, the buds should be on the surface. So the plant will wake up faster in the spring and give new shoots.
Gesneria is a tuberous plant, therefore, with the onset of dormancy in October and until January, watering is reduced. The plant will lose leaves, and when they completely fall off, the tubers are removed from the substrate and stored until the next awakening period at a temperature of about 12-14 degrees.
Reproduction of gesneria
Gesneria can be propagated both by seeds and cuttings. In autumn, seeds are planted in a pot and kept at a temperature of 22 degrees. The first shoots will not be long in coming. The grown plants are planted in different pots. Seedlings should be watered regularly, protected from hot sunlight and kept at a temperature of at least 20 degrees. A plant obtained by sowing seeds will bloom in about 2-3 years.
The time suitable for propagation by cuttings is the period from May to August inclusive. To obtain a shoot, a cut sheet is used, which is planted in a container with sand. After 40-45 days, the cutting will take its first roots, then tubers will form. Watering should be regular, and the temperature of the cuttings should be at least 25 degrees. By the end of September, watering is reduced, the temperature is reduced to 20 degrees. At the end of October, a dormant period begins: the tubers are dug up and sent to storage at a temperature of no more than 12-14 degrees. The plant will bloom in the second year.
Diseases and pests
Gesneria is often affected by pests such as thrips, aphids, whiteflies, scale insects, and spider mites. The plant can also suffer from improper care.
Popular types of gesneria
Gesneria swollen - is a shrub, perennial, weakly branching, leaves are oblong, slightly pointed at the ends. The leaves have serrated-denticles at the edges, fleshy, not pubescent, about 10-15 cm long, 3-5 cm wide. The flower grows on a long peduncle, at the top of the stem is collected in inflorescences of 4-5 pieces in each. The flower is tubular, has a funnel corolla about 3 cm long. The corolla is yellow, the flower itself is scarlet red, inside is yellow.
Gesneria hybrid - is a tuberous plant, herbaceous, perennial. The leaves are large, have a pleasant velvety finish, dark green in color. The flowers are tubular, slightly swollen, red in color, about 5-7 cm in length.
Gesneria cardinal, or scarlet - it is a herbaceous perennial, has an erect stem reaching a height of 30 cm. Leaves are dark green in color, densely pubescent. The leaves are about 10 cm long, they are fleshy, oval in shape. The cardinal gesneria blooms both in the form of single flowers, and collected in small inflorescences. The flower is tubular, swollen, and has two lips. The flower is 5-7 cm long. The color is bright scarlet.
Gesneria wedge-shaped - semi-handicraft perennial plant. Height about 30 cm. Stems are slightly shortened, have a tree-like surface. The leaves have practically no root, sit directly on the stem, with a pointed toothed edge. The width of the leaves is about 3 cm, the length is about 10-12 cm. Above, each leaf is bright green. Below, the color of the leaves is slightly paler, the surface is covered with hairs that are soft to the touch. The flowers are bright red, the lower part is painted in bright orange. Each flower sits on a long peduncle.
Gesneria of Lebanon - grows in the form of a small semi-shrub, with weakly branching stems and shoots, perennial, evergreen. Each shoot at the top has leaves gathered together. The leaves are pubescent both below and above, the length is about 8-10 cm.The plant has bright red flowers, the length is about 3-5 cm.
Universal Russian-German dictionary. Academic.ru. 2011.
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A distinctive characteristic of late summer pear varieties, such as "Augustinka", is high winter hardiness, excellent taste and long shelf life. Fruit ripening occurs in mid-August - early September, the removable period lasts 8-10 days, after which the fruits overripe and begin to fall off. In a cool dark place, laid with straw or paper, pears are stored for more than a month.
Features of the variety
The Augustinka pear was obtained by crossing two varietal pears: "Yakovlev's Favorite" and "Rosy Berkut". After planting, the tree usually bears fruit for 5-6 years. The yield increases annually; by the age of 7–8, up to 30 kg of pears can be harvested from one tree. The pear usually reaches a height of 2.5–3 meters.
When describing the Augustinka pear variety, it should be noted that it has high frost resistance, as well as strong resistance to fungi, scab and temperature extremes. The variety is practically self-fertile, it can be planted separately, but to obtain a good harvest, a neighboring planting of late summer varieties of pears is recommended.
Light, loamy soil, with the addition of compost, river sand, peat, is perfect for planting the Augustink pear. This variety of soil will provide good oxygen circulation for the root system.
Planting is carried out in the spring, or in the fall, 1–1.5 months before the start of frost, in a previously prepared hole 80 cm deep. The pear is light-loving and preferably on the southwest side. The seedling must be watered regularly - 15–20 liters of water per tree.
Pear tree Augustinka, medium vigor with a rounded-spreading, or broadly pyramidal, densely leafy crown. Glossy, scaly foliage with a grayish tint. Shoots are perpendicular to the trunk, with a slight uplift along the edges. The crown of the tree has a medium, branchy thickening.
Branches are brown with a grayish tinge, geniculate, rather thick in structure, sometimes with small lenticels. Small, slightly bent buds have a peculiar conical shape.
Pear leaves are green, leathery structure, medium in size. The leaf plate is ovoid, curved in the center, with a slightly twisted apex. Fruits are formed on ringlets and fruit twigs.
The buds are cup-shaped, white, without terry, medium size. The petals are not closed, with a split edge from the center. In the inflorescence 6-8 flowers with towering pistils. The fruits are kept on the branches of the tree for a long time, the ripening period begins in mid-August.
Characteristics of the fetus
The fruits are broadly pear-shaped, with a pronounced tuberosity, rather large, with an attractive glossy skin. The mass of a ripe pear reaches 250–400 gr. The color is yellow, has a reddish-orange blush and a fine-grained, medium-dense texture. There are subcutaneous, barely noticeable, white, small dots, with an orange tint.
The peduncle is rather thick, slightly curved, short in length, with an influx at the very base. The funnel is shallow, with a small tuberosity. The calyx of the fetus is slightly open, with a tuberous, shallow saucer. Elongated, longitudinal nest, with oval seeds, brown.
The pulp of the fruit is semi-fleshy, white. With a delicate and juicy texture. The taste is sweet with a predominant sourness and nutmeg aroma.
The variety requires regular care, it consists in timely watering, spraying with useful minerals. A balanced fertilizing with fertilizers is necessary. Obligatory, sanitary and formative pruning that helps the crown to form properly. Shoots for fruiting should be shortened by a third; after cutting, wounds must be treated with garden pitch.
With good care, it gives a yield of up to 450 c / ha. Based on the taste of the pear variety, the tasting score is 4.5 points out of five. Recommended for growing in garden farms in the Volga region.
The harvest that an apricot tree gives depends on the climate of the area, the soil, the presence of moisture, the state of the tree itself and, of course, the variety.
Apricot is one of the favorite trees of gardeners. Wild apricots and cultivated ones are known.
Wild apricot can be found only in the Tien Shan mountains. Its fruits are tough and bitter in taste. The wild apricot should not be confused with the cultivated wild apricot, whose trees grow almost anywhere, in forest belts and on roadsides. This apricot is called common apricot. And in the Kuban it is called a pole. Its trees can reach 6 m in height. Its branches are thorny, and the leaves are small.
Several decades ago, apricots were grown only in the southern regions with a warm climate. Thanks to breeders, new winter-hardy varieties of apricot have been developed, allowing this beautiful tree to be grown much further north.
Even one apricot tree in the garden can produce a good harvest. Still, it is better to plant several trees of different varieties, since cross-pollination significantly increases yields.
According to the ripening period, the apricot varieties are conventionally divided into three groups: early ripening, middle and late.
This is one of the best early ripening varieties. Refers to dessert varieties. Bred in the Czech Republic. The tree is vigorous. It tolerates winter and drought well. Bears fruit annually. In the 4-5th year of fruiting, one tree can produce up to 50 kg of fruit with excellent taste. Their color is orange with a bright red cheek. The surface is smooth. Fruits sometimes reach a weight of 60 to 90 g. But it should be remembered that this variety is affected by moniliosis. Therefore, special preparations are used to protect it.
This variety was bred in the Nikitsky Botanical Garden. A variety of medium ripening. Self-fertile. The fruits ripen in the second decade of July. The weight of the fruits is average, up to 40 g. The surface of the fruit is slightly bumpy. The color is light yellow, there is no blush. The pulp is juicy, tender, good taste. The bone is small. Fruiting begins in the 3-4th year after planting in a permanent place in the garden. The fruits should be picked on time, as overripe fruits begin to crumble. This variety practically does not suffer from moniliosis and clotterosporia.
The origin of this variety is unknown, but its popularity is quite high. It is not picky about the soil, it tolerates drought well. Begins to bear fruit in the 4-5th year after planting in the garden. Bears fruit every year. The fruits are very firmly attached to the tree. They are flat-ovate in shape. Painted in golden color with bright red dots on the surface.The fruits ripen gradually in the third decade of July.
The variety was bred in the Nikitsky Botanical Garden by crossing. It tolerates frost well. The yield is stable. Not picky about soils. The fruits begin to ripen in the second decade of July. The average weight of the fruit is 50 g. The pulp is tender, creamy, sweet in taste with a slight sourness. The skin of the fruit is thin but firm. The color is yellow with a slight blush. The fruits ripen at the same time. The yield is high.
The trees of this variety are vigorous. Begins to bear fruit early, in the third year after planting in the garden. Fruits are medium in size, weighing 30 g. Easily detached from the stalk. They begin to ripen in the last decade of July.
This variety was bred by an amateur gardener L.M. Ulyanikhin. Listed in the State Register for the Central Black Earth Region.
This is a representative of the late ripening variety. Frost resistant. Bred in Russia in 2000. The fruits are very beautiful, shiny, weighing 30 g. The surface of the fruit is rough and uneven. They have a small fluff on the skin. The color is orange with a beautiful bright blush. The flesh is bright orange in color, firm and very juicy. The fruits begin to ripen in the third decade of August. They tolerate transportation well and persist for a long time.
It is best to grow this variety in an area where there is still no rain in September. In cold climates, the fruits will not ripen in time.
Features of growing canadian blueberries
Hello dear readers of fruittree.ru!
One of the new promising crops, in the cultivation of which there has been an increased interest in recent years, is blueberry.
Canadian blueberries are especially popular, because the demand for this berry is growing every year.
Last year, the wholesale price of blueberries was $ 6 per kg, retail - from $ 11.25 to $ 15 / kg.
For the first time, blueberries were introduced into the culture in North America in 1906 by breeder Frederick Covill (before that, the berries were collected only in wild thickets).
He created 18 varieties. After the death of the breeder, who left thousands of seedlings and hybrid seeds, his American and European colleagues continued.
Today, there are more than a hundred varieties of Canadian blueberries, differing in maturity, size and quality of berries. So this plant is characterized by high frost resistance.
Blueberries are grown practically throughout the United States, as well as in New Zealand, Australia, European countries and China. The largest blueberry production is concentrated in North America: the plantings occupy more than 17 thousand hectares, and the gross annual harvest exceeds 150 thousand tons.
Canadian blueberry differs from wild blueberry in very large, beautiful and tasty berries, as well as high and regular productivity. Fruiting begins in the third - fourth year after planting. The crop is formed on the buds formed in the previous season. Plants live up to 90 years. The average yield from one bush is 5-6 kg, the maximum is up to 10 kg.
Berries are consumed both fresh and frozen, dried and processed into compotes, jam, juices. They contain many vitamins and biologically active substances, therefore they are used in dietary nutrition.
Conventionally, Canadian blueberries are divided into undersized, tall and gigantic.
The first is slightly taller than ordinary blueberries - up to 0.5 m, tall - up to 1.5 m, and the giant one reaches 3 m.
For example, several large-fruited varieties of tall blueberries: Darrow, Bluecrop, Patriot, Bludzhey and Spartan.
The berry picking period is very extended - they begin to ripen from the middle of July to September.
The harvested fruits are very well stored: at a temperature of + 20-25 ° C, the presentation remains for a month.
According to observations, tall blueberries can be successfully grown over a large area - they tolerate frost well down to -30 ° C.
Most of the varieties of this species, tested in the Brusvyana nursery in Ukraine, in the winter of 2011-2012. (the minimum temperature dropped below -32 ° C twice), at the level of snow, only a few young shoots froze.
At the same time, the overwhelming majority have preserved all the flower buds - and in 2012 we reaped a good harvest. Blueberries are not afraid of late spring frosts - flowers and ovaries can withstand up to -5 ° C.
Canadian blueberries (like cranberries and lingonberries) belong to the lingonberry family. For good development and fruiting, it must have mycorrhiza (fungi that live on the roots of plants), which is only found in soil with high acidity and sufficient moisture.
It is also very important that there is enough air.
Therefore, the best place for planting is peat workings, as well as sandy low-fertile soils with the addition of sawdust, peat, rotted needles and foliage.
It is very good if the area has a low groundwater level (maximum 60 cm) - then blueberries can be grown without additional watering. On other plots, it is imperative to organize drip irrigation.
The quality of the planting material is very important. So, if a two-year-old seedling grows for another year without transplanting, its root system will become dense and twisted.
Such an overgrowth will develop twice as slowly as a young one. Therefore, always take an interest in the age of the seedlings. If you are being sold a three-year-old plant that is still in a three-liter pot (it should be at least 10-liter), this is a low-quality planting material.
If there is no other alternative, try to "reanimate" it: remove from the pot, knead the horses a little and make four good cuts (young roots are formed in these places, which will then go beyond the planting pit).
Planting scheme for canadian blueberries.
Between bushes - 0.8-1.2 m.Row spacing with manual care - 1.5 m, and if equipment is used - 2.5-3 m.
There are two planting methods:
For large volumes, as a rule, the trench method of planting Canadian blueberries is used: it is simpler, but requires significant substrate costs.
Fruittree.ru recommends to practice the second method: the depth of the planting pit is 60-70 cm, the diameter is 60 cm.Put high-moor peat (brown color, acidity - 3.5 pH) and slightly decomposed peat between the pits, add mineral fertilizers, sawdust and coniferous litter ( we bring in mycorrhiza).
We mix all these components with a cutter and fill the pits with the resulting mixture. Then we plant seedlings with a slight deepening, water well and mulch with large sawdust or bark.
Blueberry mulching is a must.
It helps to retain moisture, reduces the number of waterings. This is important, because with frequent watering with hard water, lime accumulates in the upper layer of the earth - the soil loses acidity, the shoots begin to turn yellow (chlorosis), growth stops, and after a few years the plant may die.
In such cases, we recommend adding mulch, which decomposes and acidifies the soil, as well as using mineral fertilizers containing sulfur and also acidifying the soil. Thanks to the fibrous root system, even mature Canadian blueberry plants tolerate transplanting well. It can also be carried out in the summer: during the period of slowing growth, the roots are cut out along with a lump of earth.
Breeding technology for Canadian blueberries.
The most common and at the same time ineffective way of propagation of blueberries is with lignified cuttings. Fruittree.ru also practices propagation by green cuttings - 5-6 cm each with two leaves, which should be carried out in July (the beginning of ripening of berries).
We treat the cut with a growth stimulator (talc-based powder) and plant the plants in planting boxes or ridges. We place the seedlings in greenhouses, maintaining high humidity ("artificial fog") - rooting lasts 1.5-2 months. They practically do not give an increase, forming a weak root system during this period.
For successful wintering, rooted plants are covered with a net or cloth, and a 10-centimeter layer of straw is placed on top. Saplings hibernate, of course, in a greenhouse. If the soil temperature is below + 5 ° C degrees, freezing of the root system is possible. At the same time, in adult plants, it is quite frost-resistant: when the pots were frozen at an air temperature of -25 ° C, everyone survived.
Blueberry pests and diseases.
In the conditions of, for example, Ukraine, Canadian blueberries have not yet encountered serious problems. Sometimes it is necessary to protect against the larva of the May beetle, which damages the root system, and also to protect the crop from birds.
Do not prune for the first three to four years. On five-year-old and older plants, we remove the lower branches: when the crop is loaded, they tilt too much to the ground - the berries become unsuitable for commercial production. We also remove the weak young growth, leaving 4-5 branches.
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If you don't want to read, watch a video about planting and growing Canadian blueberries (in this video, also about lingonberry agricultural technology):